© Stephen E. Jones
This is the fourth installment of part #9, "Ninth century," of my "Chronology of the Turin Shroud: AD 30 - present" series. For more information about this series see part #1, "First century" and index.
9th century (801-900)
[Above (enlarge): Extract from folio 43v of the 9th century (c. 820) Stuttgart Psalter, presumably painted by a Byzantine artist during the Carolingian period (780-900), in the Aachen, Germany capital of Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (r. 800–814). Jesus is depicted uniquely naked from the back, being scourged with realistic scourge marks, realistically by two scourgers (as was discovered in the 20th century using the modern science of goniometry), wielding two realistic three-thonged Roman flagrums (see "c. 820" below). The unknown 9th century artist must therefore have seen either the full-length Shroud, which was then in Edessa [see "544"], or an accurate copy of it. If so, this would refute that part of Ian Wilson's theory that only after the Image of Edessa was taken from Edessa to Constantinople in 944, [see future "944"], was it discovered that behind the face of Jesus was the full-length Shroud, "doubled in four" = tetradiplon (again see "c. 820" below).]
[Above (enlarge): The 9th century chapel built by King Alfonso II, within which was the Holy Chamber (Cámara Santa) that held the Holy Chest (Arca Santa), which in turn contained the "face cloth [Gk soudarion], which had been on Jesus' head" (Jn 20:7) [see "30"], later known as the "Sudarium of Oviedo," and other relics (see below). See also 25May16]
[Above (enlarge): "The Camara Santa, or Holy Chamber, within the chapel built in 812 by King Alfonso II, to hold the Holy Chest (see below) which contained the Sudarium of Oviedo and other relics. The chest can be seen past the metal bars in the centre background.]enlarge): The Holy Chest (or Arca Santa) in which the Sudarium of Oveido was taken from Jerusalem in 614.
"Leo V ... was much milder in his enforcement of the ban than had been some of his predecessors and the attack was not so much on icons in general as upon some of the uses of them, especially in worship in private houses. The veneration of icons seems to have continued outside the capital, especially in Greece, the islands, and much of Asia Minor."The Patriarch of Constantinople (equivalent to Archbishop), Nicephorus I (r.806-815) was an early opponent of Leo V's
[Right (original): Extract of illuminated margin of mid-ninth century Chludov Psalter, depicting Nicephorus I upholding an icon and trampling John VII of Constantinople, who is lying on the ground with coins (Judas' 30 pieces of silver?).]
iconoclasm but he died in 815. A former painter of icons, the very learned John VII (nicknamed "Grammatikos"), had by 814 become an iconoclast and was later appointed Patriarch John VII of Constantinople (r.837-843) by Emperor Theophilos (r. 829-842). That the Image of Edessa/Shroud was, as in the first Iconoclastic Period [see "723"], cited as a major argument against the banning of images, is evident from Wikipedia's (garbled) summary of iconodule arguments:
"Much was made of acheiropoieta, icons believed to be of divine origin ... Christ [was] ... believed in strong traditions to have sat ... for [his] ... portrait .. to be painted"[sic]!For the end of the second iconoclastic period see future ["842"].
c. 820 Stuttgart Psalter On 20 October 2013, a Max Patrick Hamon (presumably this cryptologist) guest-posted on Dan Porter's now closed Shroud of Turin blog a post titled, "An Intriguing 9th Century Image Suggestive of the Shroud – A Guest Posting by Max Patrick Hamon".
[Above (enlarge): "The flogging of Christ, Carolingian iconography, early 9th c. CE, Stuttgart Psalter, fol. 43v, Wurttenmbergische Landesbibliothek, Germany": Max Patrick Hamon.]
Hamon asked the question: "Does the Turin Shroud predate more than half-a-millennium at least the radiocarbon date (1325±65 CE)?" and then he answered his own question (my summary with minor changes):
"A Shroud-like dorsal image of Christ?
In 1998-2000, Pr. Heinrich Pfeiffer was the first to draw attention to the ca 800-814 CE Stuttgart Psalter miniature-Turin Shroud dorsal image connection. In a passing comment he just wrote: "... The numerous small wounds resulting from the flogging are already to be found ... in a representation of the flogging of Jesus in the Stuttgart Psalter of the early 9th century. The ... miniature clearly shows the whole dorsal image of the Shroud ..."
Could the ca. 800-814 CE Stuttgart Psalter stark naked flogged Christ back view really predate the carbon 14 dating result of 1325 ± 65 calendar years by no less than 510-515 years; more than half a millennium?
... Re the Stuttgart Psalter miniature of the Flogging of Christ-Turin Shroud (TS hereafter) man’s dorsal image connection, to the astute observer [Below right (enlarge)]:
●Both men are stark naked with long flow of hair in the back ...
●Both have arm(s) bound/crossed in front. Had both no scourge marks on the inner side
arms? This cannot be checked today any longer.
●Both have bloodied furrows/scourged marks in conjunction with two whips with lashes each
fitted with doubled (metal) pellets implying two executioners.
●Both have almost feminine curved left hip & thigh (to be called later “the Byzantine curve”).
●Both are/were tied at tibiofibular level with left leg in front of right leg (TS man accurate
Forensic description: left leg in front of right leg with rope-mark in the tibiofibular fleshes).
●Both show a most unnatural/awkward feet position.
●And last but not least, by means of a very curious tailed-Epsilon hand sign each time, the executioner on the left seem to point with his left hand index finger to his own head while the executioner on the right does point to Christ’s head with his left hand index finger too. Both left hand signs cryptically echo the tailed-Epsilon-shaped like small blood rivulet we can observe on TS man’s forehead, just above his left eyebrow.
All these pieces of evidence piled up into a crucial evidence: the bloodied body burial cloth now kept in Turin was already in existence early in the 9th CE. The Stuttgart Psalter miniature Shroudlike Christ does predate the radiocarbon date by no less than half-a-millennium." (my emphasis)
To be continued in the fifth installment of this part #9 of this series.
1. This post is copyright. I grant permission to quote from any part of this post (but not the whole post), provided it includes a reference citing my name, its subject heading, its date, and a hyperlink back to this page[return].
2. "Jesus being scourged," Württembergischen Landesbibliothek Stuttgart (Wurttemberg State Library, Stuttgart), Stuttgart Psalter - Cod.bibl.fol.23, 43v. [return].
3. Ho Diéguez, C.V., 2011, "Patrimonio Ibérico – Monumentos de Oviedo y el Reino de Asturias," ("Iberian heritage - Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of Asturias" - Google Translate), 26 May. [return]
4. Bennett, J., 2001, "Sacred Blood, Sacred Image: The Sudarium of Oviedo: New Evidence for the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin," Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA, pl.3. [return]
5. "Arca Santa," Wikipedia, 29 November 2016. [return]
6. Bennett, 2001, pp.29-30. [return]
7. Bennett, 2001, p.195. [return]
8. Latourette, K.S., 1953, "A History of Christianity: Volume 1: to A.D. 1500," Harper & Row: New York NY, Reprinted, 1975, p.296; Oxley, M., 2010, "The Challenge of the Shroud: History, Science and the Shroud of Turin," AuthorHouse: Milton Keynes UK, p.30; "Byzantine Iconoclasm: The second iconoclast period: 814–842," Wikipedia, 20 February 2017. [return]
9. Latourette, 1953, p.296. [return]
10. "Byzantine Iconoclasm," Wikipedia, 20 February 2017. [return]
11. "File:Chludov Nikephoros I of Constantinople.jpg," Wikimedia Commons, 20 February 2017. [return]
12. "Nikephoros I of Constantinople," Wikipedia, 3 February 2017. [return]
13. "John VII of Constantinople," Wikipedia, 3 February 2017. [return]
14. "Byzantine Iconoclasm: Iconodule arguments," Wikipedia, 20 February 2017. [return]
Posted: 25 March 2017. Updated: 28 March 2017.